The great pyramids of Giza in Egypt were built roughly around 4500 years ago. They are also known as pyramids of Cheops or Khufu. The three pyramids were constructed for three Pharaohs(monarchs) of Egypt: – Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. It is one of the ancient wonders of the world.
There is a massive sculpture called the Great Sphinx. It is located in the Libyan desert. Along with these pyramids, there are smaller pyramids known as Queen pyramids. Many researchers are still not sure about the facts how the pyramids were constructed years ago and their complex structure.
Pharaoh Khufu built the largest pyramid called the Great pyramid around 2560 B.C. It is 481 ft.(146.5 ms). This being the tallest man-made structure in the world dating back more than 3800 years. It was built as a tomb. The pyramid of khafre is the second tallest pyramid of Giza and built as a tomb of the Pharaoh Khafre who rules from 2558 to 2532 B.C. It is 448 ft.(136. 4ms). Khafre built the Sphinx monument and it, lies near khafre’ pyramid, and the face of Sphinx was modelled after him.
The smallest of the three being the Menkaure pyramid. This also serves as a tomb of the Pharaoh Menkaure. It is 204 ft. (61ms). King Khufu ‘s port, papyri was found in the Red Sea.
The pyramid blocks were carved from ancient quarries using stone and copper equipment; then these blocks were dragged and lifted into position. Some believed that pyramids were formed from mastaba tombs which are rectangular in shape made of mud and bricks or stone.
The first Egyptian pyramid consisted of six mastabas built on top of one another. This pyramid was built on the burial of Pharaoh Dsojer Saqqara. Another pyramid constructed after that was by Pharaoh Snehfru who built three pyramids which are plain and horizontal pyramids. One of the three pyramids is called the Bent Pyramid because it is built with an angle upwards giving it a bent appearance. Some researchers thought it to be a mistake in construction. The other pyramid built was named Red Pyramid after the stone’ colour which is used in its construction. It can be called a perfect pyramid as it has a perfect shape and angle. Khufu, Snehfru ‘ son after learning from his ancestors, built the great pyramid of Egypt.
The Monarchs selected flag officers for pyramid construction. Archaeologists discovered a vast ancient harbour on the Red Sea in Wadi -al- Jarf region. The oldest papyri found in Egypt in the Red Sea. It detailed the ancient Egyptian life during Khufu’s reign, and Ankhaf who was the Pharaoh ‘s half brother was the vizier and chief of the king. Pierre Tallet and Gregory Marouard were the archaeologists who provided this information. There was another vizier Hemiunu who took care of the pyramid construction
The researchers are not only researching about pyramid construction but also about the temples, boat pits and small tombs situated near the massive pyramids. An engineer, Glen Dash of the Glen Dash research foundation and Egyptologist Mark Lehner of Ancient Egypt Research Associates took the new measurement of the Great Pyramid of Giza and said the west side of it is longer than the east b/w 0.25 to 5.6 inches to a 95% probability. The base is not square. It was said that the builders laid the structure on the cardinal directions. The scientists found 84 points along the edges and marked them on the grid system to measure the Giza pyramids.
Archaeologists of AERA found a port at Giza. The researchers have shown that there has been a port near the Giza pyramids which were used while pyramids were being built thousands of years ago. These ports were used for the supply of food and people. The port is discovered near the town where the evidence was found that the residents lived there belonged to royalty.
They were high-rank officials whereas the labourers used to sleep on the ground near the pyramid construction site. It was estimated that near about 10,000 people worked for pyramid construction in shifts. These workers were given proper diet. Dr Richard Redding who is a zoologist, as well as an archaeologist, said that more than 4,000 pounds of meat- from cattle, goat and sheep – were slaughtered every day to feed the labourers.
This non-vegetarian diet along with good medical care was an allurement for the builders to work on pyramids. These workers were given better food than they get in their villages. The animals were brought from the city to the pyramid site and slaughtered and fed to the pyramid workers. Redding wrote all this in a paper published in the book, “Proceedings of the 10th meeting of the ICAZ working group Archaeozoology of south-west Asia and adjacent areas”(Peeters Publishing 2013).
The pyramid stones user in Khufu pyramid is carved from a horseshoe quarry located on the south side of the pyramid as stated by Mark Lehner and David Goodman of AERA. They published their findings in the journal, “ MITTEILUNGEN DES DEUSTSCHEN ARCHAOLOGISCHEN INSTITUTS”.
The labourers used pyramid blocks from a quarry near Menkaure’s pyramids to construct that pyramid, but that quarry was not found from which khafre’s pyramid was built. The papyri discovered at Wadi-al-Jarf near the Red Sea read that the limestone used in the casing stones of the pyramids were carved from a quarry at Turah near Cairo along the river Nile.
The massive limestone casing stones were moved from one place to another by using sleigh which was pulled by a group of builders. Wetting the sand in front of the primitive device reduces friction on the sledge, making it easier to move on the sand. So this challenging work of pyramid construction got easier after dampening the ground on which the workers pulled the sledges. It took very few labourers to work on wet sand instead of dry sand. When the limestone reached the pyramid sites, an inclined plane is used to load the stones up to the pyramid. But there is no evidence of these slopes according to the archaeologists. The researchers are still discovering the pyramid structures. Their project of discovery also brought to light some hidden tombs within the Huge pyramids.