70% of Earth’s surface is covered by Oceans. Around 97% of Earth’s water is enclosed in seas and oceans. These are the names of five Oceans in the world– The Arctic, the Indian, the Southern, the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean – they all are linked and form a mammoth bulk of water. The Southern Ocean was demarcated by the International Hydrographic Organization (it spreads 60 degrees to the latitude and environs the Antarctic Ocean). Oceans are enormous with small bodies of salty water within it known as seas. There are many seas as well; land somewhat surrounds them. The world’s major seas are the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the South China Sea.
The water in the oceans is salty, because of which they are unbefitting to be used as drinking water. The greatest amount of salt originates from minerals that are found in rocks and soil that gets eroded because of the land and is carried by the rivers into the oceans. Most of the minerals found in rocks are sodium and chloride, the combination of which makes salt. Furthermost the table salt that we consume is derived from of the oceans.
The salinity and the quantity of salt differ according to different oceans. Oceans that are in cold climates, like the ones near to the North and the South Pole are less salty in comparison to those in warm and dry areas. The reason for this variation is that the water in the ocean evaporates quickly in warmer areas and due to that more salt is left behind. The Red Sea, which is individually surrounded by deserts, has the saltiest water in the entire world.
The Origin of Ocean : What Are The Oceans ?
According to the Research, it is suggested that oceans area around four billion ages old and a procedure called out gassing of the deep interiors of the earth caused the formation of the oceans and the atmosphere on Earth. If this scientific theory is to be believed, the ocean was invented due to the leakage of water vapors from the liquefied rocks that were left from the initial Earth. The vapors surrounded the cooling planet and started rising for the formation of clouds, and when the temperature of the earth cooled to a level beneath the sweltering point of water, it started raining, and the sky continued to pour for millions of ages. The water then started draining into the large depressions of the planet’s broken surface, and hence oceans were designed. The gravitational force reserved the water on Earth. It is believed that the oceans are still continuing to form but at a tremendously sluggish pace. According to the survey of Garrison, around 0.025 cubic miles, each year is added to the oceans.
The Oceans are also known as the Controller of the Climate of Earth. Oceans cause the major changes in weather and climate of the Earth. It has the massive capability to stock heat and can have an effect on the absorption of the gases of Atmosphere due to which the temperature of the planet is controlled.
Environmental Health: Ecological Perspectives (2005), Kathryn Hilgen Kamp specifies that the topmost eight feet of the ocean hold equal amount of heat as the all-inclusive atmosphere, creating the ocean’s capability to dispense warmth which is a vital feature for the changes in climate. For instance, the incidence of the current of warm water flowing southward off the coastline of western South America, which is produced by a failure of craft air stream movement (steady winds gusting from the east to the west overhead and underneath the equator) can disturb global weather configurations.
In the cycle of Carbon Dioxide also, a very vital role is played by the OCEAN, and that is a process that affects global warming. As per the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 returns to Average after two annual increase. The NOAA Magazine dated March 31, 2005; state that around seven billion tons amount of carbon dioxide is stocked by the ocean that is added every year by the natural foundations to the atmosphere and the burning of fossil fuels by humanity. The trees, oceans, soil, and plant said as reservoirs for around partial of all the human-produced carbon dioxide discharged every year from the time when the Industrial Revolution started, while the other partial is amassing in the atmosphere.
Positions And Separation Of All 5 Oceans
|Largest Ocean Of The World||Pacific Ocean||Separated into north and south pacific.|
|Second Largest Ocean Of The World||Atlantic Ocean||Separated into north and south Atlantic|
|Third Largest Ocean Of the World||Indian Ocean||Known as the sea south of India containing the water of Arabian and Laccadive Seas|
|Fourth Largest Ocean Of the World||Southern Ocean||Extension of the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans|
|Smallest Ocean Of the World||Arctic Ocean||The sea around North pole containing the water of Greenland sea.|
All the 5 Oceans Of The World:
1. The Pacific Ocean – Largest Ocean Of The World
The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean amongst all the 5 Oceans in the world. It is positioned between the eastern shorelines of Africa and Asia and the western shorelines of the American Continents. To the south lies the Antarctic Ocean and to the north of the Pacific Ocean lies the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Ocean Shields about 165,200,000 square kilometers and boasts of the lengthiest complete coastline of around 135,663 kilometers.
Out of the entire water surface of the earth around 46% is covered by The Pacific Ocean alone and out of the total surface of the area more than one-third is covered with it. It is mostly greater than the combined land area. Around 50.1% of the entire Oceanic water of the earth is represented in this Ocean. The demarcation of the ocean as North and South of the Pacific Ocean is easier because the equator is passing right through in the mid. Mariana Trench is the deepest point on earth, and it is situated on the Northern Pacific Ocean, and this ocean is recognized to be of utmost peacefulness.
2. The Atlantic Ocean – Second Largest Ocean Of The World
The second biggest ocean amongst all the 5 oceans in the world is Atlantic Ocean, and it has an area of 106,400,000 square kilometers. Its borders in the west are surrounded by Americans and African Americans and by the Europeans in the East. The Atlantic Ocean comprises of the Caribbean Sea, Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Mediterranean Sea. The Atlantic Ocean spreads out to South and North like the Pacific Ocean as Antarctic and Arctic Ocean. Up to the fifteenth century, the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean remained the only recognized journeyed seas in the entire world. For colonization and spice trade this was the only available route. Lots of marine species have home in this Ocean, comprising the sperm whale, the biggest living saw-toothed animal in the world.
The equator distributes the ocean in two halves, the South Atlantic Ocean, and the North Atlantic Ocean. The area which is to the north of the equator, amid South America and Africa, is mentioned as Central Atlantic. The water in the Northern part which is amid North America and Europe is very dissimilar to the water in the central Atlantic.
The saltiest water can be found in the Atlantic Ocean. The key providers to the salinity are the inflow of river, the evaporation process, melting of the sea ice and precipitation. The circulation of the water is in a clockwise trend in the North Atlantic, while the circulation of the water is anti-clockwise in the South Atlantic. This is caused because of the Carioles Effect. Among all Oceans this ocean is furthermore the second youngest. It is said that 30 million years ago, this ocean was non-existent.
3. The Indian Ocean – Third Largest Ocean Of The World
The third biggest ocean amongst all the 5 oceans in the world is Indian Ocean. It covers an area of about 73,556,000 square kilometers, during the history of the world, the Indian Ocean has had a rich diversity of humankind. The Indian Ocean is surrounded by the coasts of Middle East, the coast of Africa in the east and India to the northern coast. It is detached by Australia and South East Asia from the Pacific Ocean. There are interesting plants and animal kinds in the Indian Ocean.
The Indian Ocean comprises of 20% of the water that is there on the surface of the Earth. Out of the largest oceans that the Earth has this one is the youngest. The Americans and Europeans are connected through this key sea passage to East Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. A known fact is that the Indian Ocean is the producer of about 40% of the offshore oil of the World. The sands of the beach that comprise of great amounts of heavy minerals are exploited mostly by diverse neighboring countries.
The India Ocean usually has a quite warm climate, due to which the manufacturing of the phytoplankton is low hence life in this ocean is limited. On the shore of the Indian Ocean, the port of Mumbai is the main port for trading in India and is famously known as the Gateway of India. The busiest port is the Port of Singapore. There are innumerable lesser-known ports as well. This Ocean comprises of a lot of straits, bays and gulfs as well.
4. The Southern Ocean – Fourth Largest Ocean Of The World
The fourth largest ocean amongst the 5 oceans in the world that covers an area of about 20,327,000 square kilometers in the entire world is Southern Ocean. This ocean is situated near the South Pole, because of which sundry also denotes it as the southern ocean. The Antarctic Ocean greatly influences the weather configurations of the earth. Tenacious easterly current joins the waters of the Indian Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific Ocean. The cold waters that are flowing northward in the Antarctic blend with the warm waters that are present on sub-Antarctic in the ocean zone.
If considered geologically, this ocean is measured and is the youngest out of all the oceans. The Southern Ocean because of its phytoplankton is house to a wide diversity of marine animals that are existent and rely on it. This expanse has rich sources for innumerable species that are habitual to marine life. This Ocean is a stockroom of lots of natural possessions. It comprises of treasured minerals, gas fields, and massive oil fields as well.
5. The Arctic Ocean – Smallest Ocean Of The World
The narrowest and the smallest of the oceans amongst the 5 oceans in the world is Arctic Ocean. About 13,986,000 square kilometers of the area is covered by this ocean. This is nearly the magnitude of the entire country of Russia. A major portion of Arctic Ocean is present in Arctic Circle. North American and Eurasian continents surround the Arctic Ocean. It comprises of Barents Sea, Hudson Bay, and the North Sea. For the major part of the year, this sea remains covered with thick layer of ice as thick as hundreds of feet down. The Ocean remains inaccessible even during the peak of summer season.
The Ocean being in Northern Hemisphere is often referred to as the World Ocean’s northernmost part. The periodic freezing and melting of the ice concealment result in variance in surface temperature as well as the saline content by different seasons. The lower rate of evaporation, limited connectivity to other oceans as well as a heavy influx of freshwater from streams and various rivers contributes towards low salinity which ranks lowermost among all oceans. The major nations that share their border with the Arctic Ocean are Norway, Russia, Greenland, Iceland, The United States of America and Canada. It constitutes of several water bodies like straits, tributaries, and bays.
Lomonosov Ridge, as well as the underwater ridge present in the Arctic Ocean, compartment alises the North Polar Basin into two basins, firstly the Amerasian Basin and secondly the Eurasian Basin. Like Deep in the Ocean is the deepest point in the Eurasian Basin.
Comparatively, this ocean has petite plant life. Mostly Phytoplankton’s are accessible. It is a house to an innumerable number of threatened species that survive in marine life.